Theo Chappell Week 9 DiscussionCOLLAPSEMost people with schizophrenia struggle to understand the severity of their symptoms. Some of their ideas about their illness indicate that health professionals should provide more thorough education about their condition (Irawani & Asniar, 2022). Patients with schizophrenia of various ages. The nature of schizophrenia spectrum disorders with onset in middle or late adulthood remains controversial. Our study aimed to determine patients aged 60 and older (Smeets-Janssen et al., 2020).Younger patients with schizophrenia have experienced fewer adverse of the illness than older patients. Antipsychotic use in the elderly is related to severe side effects. (Targum et al., 2017). Careful consideration of comorbidity and polypharmacy is imperative (Behrman, Burgess & Topiwala, 2018). In this discussion, I will discuss schizophrenia in older adults and talk about one FDA-approved drug, one non-FDA-approved “off-label” medication, and one nonpharmacological treatment.The United States Food and Drug Administration has approved the administration of antipsychotic medications in treating schizophrenia in older adult populations in older adults with schizophrenia. In contrast to traditional antipsychotics, Seroquel is an atypical antipsychotic medication that is recommended. Atypical antipsychotics are available in various doses, but the recommended Seroquel dosage for elderly adults with schizophrenia should start from 50 mg at night, which helps also sleep. Seroquel doses will adjust depending on the patient’s condition,An off-label such as lithium has been used in studies to help enhance mood and conduct in some patients but does not have an antipsychotic effect. They are used for the treatment of mania and depression. Lithium is the gold standard therapy for bipolar disorder (BD) but its effectiveness differs widely between individuals., it is also sometimes used to treat schizophrenia (Leucht, Helfer, Dold, Kissling, & McGrath 2015).The nonpharmacological intervention recommended for older adults with schizophrenia is psychosocial therapy. A long history of research has been conducted on psychosocial interventions aiming at enhancing independent functioning and social skills in schizophrenia. These therapies may be particularly beneficial in elderly patients since many fail to respond completely to antipsychotic medications (Cooper et al., 2020). Recent work has evaluated the benefits of a new, combined Cognitive Behavioral, Social Skills Training (CBSST) intervention in groups of older patients with primarily early-onset schizophrenia. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) combines the Social Skills Training (SST) elements of problem-solving and role-playing with the Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) techniques of thought identification and challenging (Rajji, Mamo, Holden, Granholm, Mulsant 2021).The FDA-approved medicine for treating schizophrenia in older adults is Seroquel. The risks and benefits of Seroquel include the fact that it is an atypical antipsychotic medication that is recommended. Atypical antipsychotics are available in various doses, but the recommended Seroquel dosage for elderly adults with schizophrenia should start from 50 mg at night, which helps also sleep. Seroquel doses will adjust depending on the patient’s condition. The main benefit of Seroquel is that it is an effective antipsychotic medication. The main risks associated with Seroquel use include the fact that it can cause severe side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and tardive dyskinesia.Lithium is the off-label drug used in studies to help enhance mood and conduct in some patients. The risks and benefits of lithium include the fact that it is the gold standard therapy for bipolar disorder (BD) but its effectiveness differs widely between individuals. Lithium is also sometimes used to treat schizophrenia (Leucht, Helfer, Dold, Kissling, & McGrath 2015). The main benefit of lithium is that it is an effective mood enhancer. The main risks associated with lithium use include the fact that it can cause severe side effects, including gastrointestinal problems, tremors, and kidney problems.Clinical practice guidelines do exist for the treatment of schizophrenia in older adults. The main guideline that exists is the United States Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) guidance on the use of antipsychotic medications in treating schizophrenia in older adults. The FDA guidance recommends the use of atypical antipsychotic medications, such as Seroquel, in treating schizophrenia in older adults. The main reason for this recommendation is that atypical antipsychotics are less likely to cause severe side effects, such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and tardive dyskinesia. The FDA guidance also recommends the use of psychosocial therapy as a nonpharmacological intervention for older adults with schizophrenia.ReferencesMaan, J. S., Ershadi, M., Khan, I., & Saadabadi, A. (2021). Quetiapine. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.Felthous, A. R. (2018). The pharmacotherapy of clinical aggression in criminal offenders. Rassegna Italiana di Criminologia, (3), 196-206.McCutcheon, R. A., Marques, T. R., & Howes, O. D. (2020). Schizophrenia—an overview. 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